1. Similarites and Differences
  2. Non-Linguistic Representations
  3. Summarizing and Note Taking
  4. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  5. Homework and Practice
  6. Setting objectives and Giving Feedback

Marzano Strategies and Technology Ideas
Marzano Poster
Marzano Expanded Results and Strategies -
More Expanded Marzano Strategies
Videos - http://www.iobservation.com/Marzano-Suite/Videos/looking-beyond-high-yield-strategies/
Research Strategies by Marzano
Marzano Domains
Marzano Vocabulary Strategies
9 Strategy Faculty presentation-
Marzano 41 strategies, 9 Content, and 3 Lesson Segments - http://www.d11.org/EASy/Documents/Articles/Instruction/What%20Teachers%20Gain%20from%20Deliberate%20Practice,%20Educational%20Leadership,%20December%202010.pdf
Classroom Instruction that Works - http://books.google.com/books?id=c25kDO0adxwC&pg=PA160&lpg=PA160&dq=marzano+41+strategies&source=bl&ots=DunKmrZU-8&sig=uFF62z1nJ5MH0ps84690ZMSaM7k&hl=en&ei=tzGZTeLPHeOC0QH4oNn5Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFYQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
Art and Science of Teaching - http://books.google.com/books?id=JBeFD6sTx_IC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=marzano+41+strategies&source=bl&ots=iqDOFG5b6L&sig=00mRARLfunr3sf_zQjqojeB2yV0&hl=en&ei=FDWZTaCLEemT0QGmpfnoCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCEQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=marzano%2041%20strategies&f=false
Classroom Management that Works - http://books.google.com/books?id=BVM2ml2Q-QgC&pg=PA122&lpg=PA122&dq=marzano+41+strategies&source=bl&ots=GckIaYSbPV&sig=2FgLUhKWybvimpP8qAnzNhxCXZM&hl=en&ei=FDWZTaCLEemT0QGmpfnoCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q&f=false

Marzano’s 9 High Yield Instructional Strategies Marzano, Robert J., Pickering Debra J., and Pollock, Jane E.
In Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Robert Marzano (2001) and his colleagues identify nine high-yield instructional strategies through a meta-analysis of over 100 independent studies. They determined that these nine strategies have the greatest positive affect on student achievement for all students, in all subject areas, at all grade levels. Marzano’s nine high-yield instructional strategies are summarized in the table below.

Identifying similarities and differences
Students should compare, classify, and create metaphors, analogies and graphic representations.
T-charts, Venn diagrams, classifying, analogies, cause and effect link, compare and contrast organizers, QAR, sketch to stretch, affinity diagram, Frayer model, metaphors, comparison matrix
Summarizing and Note-Taking
Students should learn to delete unnecessary information, substitute some information, keep important information, write/rewrite, and analyze information.
Teacher models summarization techniques, identify key concepts, bullets, outlines, clusters, webbing, narrative organizers, journal summaries, break down assignments, create simple reports, quick writes, graphic organizers, column notes, affinity diagrams. Use summary frames, key concept notes.
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
Teachers should reward based on standards of performance; use symbolic recognition rather than just tangible rewards
Hold high expectations, display finished products, praise students’ effort, encourage students to share ideas and express their thoughts, honor individual learning styles and cultural differences, conference individually with students, authentic portfolios, stress-free environment.
Teach students that effort can improve achievement, ask students to chart effort and achievement, use rubrics, encourage risk-taking
Homework and practice
Teachers should vary the amount of homework based on student grade level (less at the elementary level, more at the secondary level), keep parent involvement in homework to a minimum, state purpose, and, if assigned, should be debriefed.
Retell, recite and review learning for the day at home, reflective journals, parents are informed of the goals and objectives, interdisciplinary teams plan together for homework distribution.
Communicate homework policy, clarify the purpose, comment on homework, use planners, set up school support systems for homework completions, encourage daily home reading, keep parents informed.
Nonlinguistic representations
Students should create graphic representations, models, mental pictures, drawings, pictographs, and participate in kinesthetic activity in order to assimilate knowledge.
Visual tools and manipulatives, problem-solution organizers, spider webs, diagrams, concept maps, drawings, maps, sketch to stretch, K.I.M.
Employ use of charts, graphs, tables, visual organizers, tools, vocabulary cards, visualization activities, demonstrations, pantomime, illustrations, pictographic and kinesthetic representations.

Cooperative Learning
Teachers should limit use of ability groups, keep groups small, apply strategy consistently and systematically but not overuse.
Integrate content and language through group engagement, reader’s theatre, pass the pencil, circle of friends, cube it, radio reading, shared reading and writing, plays, science projects, debates, jigsaw, group reports, choral reading, affinity diagram.
Use rubrics for group goals, teach/model: effective interpersonal skills, group maintenance and self-assessment. Classroom competitions, group projects, multi-media projects, language experience and practice, group reflection/analysis, evaluation and synthesis
Setting objectives and providing feedback
Teachers should create specific but flexible goals, allowing some student choice. Teacher feedback should be corrective, timely and specific to a criterion.
Articulate and display learning goals, KWL, contract learning goals. Personalize and communicate objectives, set and negotiate contracts and learning goals, communicate with parents, use rubrics, provide frequent feedback and explanations, encourage self-assessment and positive peer feedback.
Generating and testing hypotheses
Students should generate, explain, test and defend hypotheses using both inductive and deductive strategies through problem solving, history investigation, invention, experimental inquiry, and decision making.
Thinking processes, constructivist practices, investigate, explore, social construction of knowledge, use of inductive and deductive reasoning, questioning the author.
Provide students graphic organizers, ask for explanations on hypotheses and conclusions, teach inductive and deductive strategies through problem solving, teach experimental inquiry and decision making
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
Teachers should use cues and questions that focus on what is important (rather than unusual), use ample wait time before accepting responses, eliciting inferences and analysis. Advance organizers should focus on what is important and are more useful with information that is not well organized.
Graphic organizers, provide guiding questions before each lesson, think alouds, inferencing, predicting, drawing conclusions, skim chapters to identify key vocabulary, concepts and skills, ACE, anticipation guide, annotating the text.
Use experimental inquiry, explicit cues, focus on important information, Bloom’s taxonomy, teach cause and effect, ask analytic and inferential questions, sequence events
©Jim Shipley & Associates, Inc. January, 2008
Polk middle school
The word “strategy” often connotes lofty vision and grand plans; in fact, it is simply a method of achieving a result.
Douglas B. Reeves